There are a number of books, book chapters, and research reports written about competency-based education. The following list includes resources we have used to shape the 10 Shared Design Elements and the C-BEN work cycles. If you have suggestions for additions to this list, please email this information to email@example.com and we will get this list updated. In the future, C-BEN will be posting a searchable, annotated resource list on this site so please check back for updates.
- (2013). Rebecca E. Wolfe, et. al. (Editors), Harvard Education Press.
- (2015). Ryan Craig, Palgrave Macmillan Trade, St. Martin’s Press.
- (2013). Jeffrey J. Selingo, Amazon Publishing.
- (2011). Frederick M. Hess and Bruno V. Manno (Editors), Harvard Education Press.
- (2015). Michael M. Crow and William B. Dabars, John Hopkins University Press.
- (2004). D.S. Rychen and A. Tiana, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education.
- (2010). Anya Kamenetz, Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
- (2013). Derek Bok, Princeton University Press.
- (2014). Michelle R. Weise, Clayton M. Christensen, The Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation.
- (2004). ACPA and NASPA, NASPA Publications.
- (2001). Richard A. Voorhees (Editor), Jossey-Bass.
- (2015). Michael Kirst and Mitchell L. Stevens (Editors), Stanford University Press.
- (2011). Nancy Hoffman, Harvard Education Press.
- (1999). Anntoinette D. Lucia and Richard Lepsinger, Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer.
- (2015). Kevin Carey, Riverhead Books, Penguin Group.
- (2006). Peter M. Senge, Doubleday, Random House, Inc.
Book Chapters and Reports
- Best Practices in Competency-Based Education: Lessons from Three Colleges (2015). Mathematica Policy Research, InFocus.
- Beyond the Inflection Point: Reimagining Business Models for Higher Education (2014). Part of the Presidential Innovation Lab series from the American Council on Education and the Center for Education Attainment and Innovation.
- Competency-Based Degree Programs in the U.S.: Postsecondary Credentials for Measurable Student Learning and Performance (2012). Rebecca Klein-Collins, CAEL.
- Driving Better Outcomes: Typology and Principles to Inform Outcomes-Based Funding Models (2014). HCM Strategists.
- Employer Perspectives on Competency-Based Education (2015). Chip Franklin and Robert Lytle, Center on Higher Education Reform and American Enterprise Institute.
- Experimental Sites Concept Paper (2014). Submitted to the United States Department of Education and written by Alison Kadlec and Mike Offerman.
- Falling Short? College Learning and Career Success: Selected Findings from Online Surveys of Employers and College Students Conducted on Behalf of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (2015). Hart Research Associates for Association of American Colleges and Universities.
- Innovating toward a Vibrant Learning Ecosystem: Ten Pathways for Transforming Learning (2014). Katherine Prince, KnowledgeWorks.
- Issues by the Numbers: The solution revolution in education (2013). Deloitte University Press.
- Paths to the River: Principles for Competency-Based Learning (In Press). Richard A. Voorhees and Alice Bedard Voorhees.
- Postsecondary Education for Adult Learners: Evaluation of a Sleeping Giant (2011). Michelle L. Maldonado, Esq. and Crystal Jones, from The Expert’s Guide to the Postsecondary Market.
- Productivity Strategy Lab Site Visit: Creating a Systemwide, Competency Based Online Degree Program. HCM Strategists.
- Reimagining higher education: How colleges, universities, businesses, and governments can prepare for a new age of lifelong learning (2014). GovLab, Deloitte University Press.
- Signals and Shifts in the Postsecondary Landscape (2014). Part of the Presidential Innovation Lab series from the American Council on Education and the Center for Education Attainment and Innovation.
- The Currency of Higher Education: Credits and Competencies (2015). Deborah Seymour, Deborah Everhart and Karen Yoshino, American Council on Education and Blackboard.
- The Changing Landscape of Higher Education (2011). David J. Staley and Dennis A. Trinkle, EDUCAUSE Review, January/February 2011 edition.
- The Changing Landscape of Higher Education: The Future of College Admission (2006). William G. Tierney, written for the National Association for College Admission Counseling.
- The Landscape of Competency-Based Education: Enrollments, Demographics and Affordability (2015). Robert Kelchen, Center on Higher Education Reform, American Enterprise Institute.
- The Lifetime Learner: A Journey Through the Future of Postsecondary Education (2014). Deloitte Center for the Edge. Deloitte University Press.
- The Students of the Future (2014). Part of the Presidential Innovation Lab series from the American Council on Education and the Center for Education Attainment and Innovation.
- Unbundling Versus Designing Faculty Roles (2014). Part of the Presidential Innovation Lab series from the American Council on Education and the Center for Education Attainment and Innovation.
- What will the Learn? 2014-15: A Survey of Core Requirements at Our Nation’s Colleges and Universities. American Council of Trustees and Alumni.
In January 2015, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Public Agenda set out to find program design elements shared among thriving competency-based education (CBE) programs. Several months of research, and conversations surfaced ten shared design elements. These elements were sourced and vetted in collaboration with project sponsors, partners and CBE program leaders. Then, the elements were validated through a comprehensive field survey. The field is young and growing. Amid such rapid change it is striking to see these ten shared design elements and their emerging practices show up again and again. These design elements and practices are meant to instruct rather than prescribe. We hope our findings guide and support your CBE program design process, leading you and your team to the most robust and quality program possible.
The Competency-Based Education Ecosystem Framework provides the most detailed and accurate description to date of what competency-based education (CBE) looks like from the perspectives of learners, higher education professionals, policymakers and others involved in this rapidly expanding movement. The report gives everyone involved in CBE programs a baseline understanding and common language to guide the development of high-quality programs.
Faculty and Staff Roles and Responsibilities in the Design and Delivery of Competency-Based Programs: A C-BEN Snapshot
Michelle Navarre Cleary, Associate Dean of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment, DePaul University
A new report reveals that colleges and universities offering competency-based education (CBE) programs have common expectations for program design and that those responsible for designing and delivering these programs tend to be full-time employees with a master’s or a doctorate degree.
America’s Call For Higher Education Redesign the 2012 Lumina Foundation Study Of The American Public’s Opinion On Higher Education
Lumina Foundation and Gallup
Lumina Foundation, an Indianapolis-based private foundation, is committed to enrolling and graduating more students from college — especially 21st century students: low-income students, students of color, first-generation students, and adult learners. Lumina’s goal is to increase the percentage of Americans who hold high-quality degrees, certificates, and other credentials to 60 percent by 2025. Lumina pursues this goal in three ways: by identifying and supporting effective practices, through public policy advocacy, and by using communications and convening power to build public will for change.
Amy Laitnen, New America Foundation and Education Sector
The basic currency of higher education – the credit hour – represents the root of many problems plaguing America’s higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. This piece traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define the credit hour.
Stephen R. Porter, North Carolina State University Kevin Reilly, University of Wisconsin System and Presidential Advisor for Leadership, American Council on Education
This paper examines competency-based education as a potential cost-saving strategy for both students and institutions, and seeks to understand how these programs can be implemented at regional public institutions.
Stephen R. Porter, North Carolina State University
Competency-based education programs don’t easily fit within standard time-based approaches to disbursing federal student aid, making access to Federal Direct Student Loans and Federal Pell Grants difficult. With the pool of potential students limited by the availability of financial aid, colleges and universities continue to have little incentive to design large-scale competency-based programs. Addressing this challenge will be critical to the future of these programs.
The Degree Qualifications Profile, Defining Degrees: A New Direction for American Higher Education to be Tested and Developed in Partnership with Faculty, Students, Learner and Stakeholders
As all stakeholders in higher education focus more intently on increasing degree attainment, it is more important than ever to fully understand the meaning of those degrees. While many institutions have worked to identify student learning outcomes to inform their own work, these efforts have been largely invisible to students and other key players.
Visit the C-BEN site for more resources by clicking here.